The quality of your coffee beans is important. But you can only get the best-tasting cup of Joe if you grind the coffee just before you brew it.
But how you grind the beans highly affects the quality of its flavor. To get the best flavor extraction, you need a consistent grind that matches the type of your brew.
So, do you need a high end coffee grinder to make the best cup of Joe?
Before we answer this question, let’s find out first what makes a high-end coffee grinder.
What Makes a High-End Coffee Grinder?
A high-end coffee grinder produces precise and consistent grind size. This results in a more balanced extraction.
Let’s have a comparison between an ordinary grinder and a high-end grinder. This will help you get a better understanding of their differences
Ordinary Coffee Grinders
The specific function of ordinary coffee grinders is to crush or chop the beans for brewing. The design of these mills doesn’t concern much with the consistency of the grind.
The best example of an ordinary coffee mill is a blade grinder. This machine uses a double-pronged blade that chops the coffee beans to a variety of sizes.
At the end of the grinding process, you’ll get a mix of fine and some chunks of grounds.
Below are some of the basic features of blade grinders:
- Easy and convenient to use
- Portable and compact
- Simple on/off switch
- No option to set the grind size
- Inconsistent grounds particles
- Not built to last
- Blade heats beans (destroys coffee flavor)
Low-end burr grinders are also ordinary grinders. But they grind with better consistency than blade grinders, don’t they?
Yes, but still, they are under the classification of the ordinary grinder category. Because these coffee mills don’t produce good enough grind consistency.
Thus you cannot get that perfect coffee flavor extraction.
These low-end mills use burrs to crush the coffee beans. But these machines have not so many built-in features.
And so, they can’t produce precise and extremely consistent ground particles.
These ordinary burr grinders are only good for home use and a daily cup of Joe brewing. But still, using them is better than brewing preground coffee.
Let’s have a quick look at the basic features of low-end burr grinders.
- Produce grounds with better consistency
- Few grind adjustment settings
- Last for a year or two (or maybe less)
- Produce less heat during grinding (maintains flavor)
- More expensive than blade grinders
- Way cheaper than high-end grinders
- May have a built-in timer for convenience
High-End Coffee Grinders
Are you familiar with coffee grinding machines used in cafes?
The grinders they use are the secret to their rich and flavorful cups of Joe that clients enjoy.
These high-end coffee mills grind with extremely consistent ground particles. This feature makes them perfect for any brew methods.
It doesn’t matter whether you prefer French press, drip, cold brew, or espresso. A high-end grinder will produce a precise grind size for any preferred brewing method.
Let’s have a look at the common key features of high-end coffee grinders.
- Built to last
- Equipped with variable grind settings
- Have built-in timer
- Produce precise and highly consistent coffee grounds
- Larger and long-lasting conical or flat burrs
- Heavy-duty construction
- Heavy-duty motor
- Some models use electronics technology
- Highly expensive
- Larger footprint
- Heavier due to sturdy steel parts
- Commercial-grade design
- Choice of professional baristas
- High-volume capacity grinding
Things You can Enjoy with High-End Grinders
There are many things you can enjoy having a high-end coffee grinder.
The consistency of the grind is important in achieving great coffee extraction. For this, you will need a top-quality grinder to perform such a task.
The price of high-end grinders may reach sky-high. But there are benefits you can enjoy having one.
Below are some of the benefits of using a high-end grinder:
- Improves the taste of your coffee.
- Eliminates sludge formation that makes a bitter brew.
- It makes great-tasting espresso.
- You have better control over grind size.
- Experiment on different brewing methods.
- Produces exact grind doses for any intended brew.
- Enjoy barista-level coffee brews.
- You get more than enough value for the price you pay.
- You enjoy long years of service.
Now you learned about what makes a high-end grinder. You have also known the features and benefits it offers.
But wouldn’t it be also interesting to learn about the reasons why you would need one?
Of course, the obvious reason is the benefits one can enjoy from owning a high-end coffee mill.
It doesn’t matter whether you are a home user, coffee shop owner, or a roastery owner. You need to get the best high-end coffee grinder to get the best-tasting and fresh coffee brew at all times.
Why would a home user invest in an expensive high-end grinder?
That’s what we’re going to find out in the next section.
The Ridiculous Home User of a High-End Grinder
It seems absurd to spend a fortune for a grinder, but a true coffee aficionado will consider it a wise decision.
Imagine how much money you spend in a year at your favorite coffee shop just to get a regular caffeine dose.
Let’s say you spend an average $2 per day on your favorite coffee brew. That’s $730 a year, enough to buy you a high-end grinder that can produce fine enough grounds for espresso.
In the long run, you get to save $730 every year until your high-end grinder reaches its lifespan.
But a well maintained high-end grinder can exceed more years of its life expectancy. So consider it as bonus savings.
Money-wise, a high-end grinder for home use is a great investment.
We’re all coffee lovers, so let’s talk about coffee and not so much about the money.
So, what good can you get with a high-end grinder when you can save more on a low-end one?
Think about your favorite brew at your favored coffee shop. Do you think you can make the same great-tasting coffee using a low-end coffee grinder?
To get the best coffee taste, you need the best coffee grinder aside from using high-quality beans.
But you might ask, I only want standard French press brew, would a low-end grinder matter?
If an ok coffee is good enough for you, then you can settle for the low-end coffee grinder. But you’re here not for a mediocre coffee, right?
A true coffee enthusiast is adventurous and loves to do coffee experiments. Sooner you’ll be trying other brews like coffee blends based on espresso.
And you can only do all these using a high-end grinder.
Who knows? Soon you’ll have an interest in opening up your coffee shop, and this leads you to our next topic.
The Great Open Secret of Coffee Shop Owners
It’s no secret that coffee shops use high-end grinders in their daily operations.
Isn’t it better to use entry-level coffee mills for coffee shops? This way, they’ll invest less money and get a faster return on investment.
That could be a good point. Yet, entry-level coffee mills are not capable of producing highly consistent ground particles.
Most cafes use coffee blends based on espresso. But to make a perfect espresso, you need fine enough grind size to get a perfect flavor extraction.
Extracting the rich flavor and crema of the espresso is impossible. But that is true only if a coffee house uses an ordinary coffee grinder.
As an owner of the coffee business, you wouldn’t want to serve ordinary tasting coffee blends. You wouldn’t want to lose customers, would you?
Ask any popular coffee houses about their secret to great-tasting coffee blends. And you know what?
They’ll give you the same answers. The secret to great-tasting coffee starts with a high-end grinder.
Now, let’s take another situation. A scenario when a coffee business needs the reliability of a grinder.
Have you noticed popular coffee houses of how people line up to buy their favorite coffee blend?
Of course, they’re lining up for the coffee. But do you think they’ll wait with patience if your service is slow?
Most likely not. And in times like these, you need a reliable grinder that grinds with quality and efficiency.
The best high-end coffee grinders are capable of continuous grinding without overheating.
Imagine coffee shops serving hundreds of people on peak days.
You’re grinding for hundreds of cups of coffee. And a sudden, your grinder stopped working.
That would be the end of your business. You don’t want clients branding your cafe with bad customer service, do you?
In a nutshell, a high-end coffee grinder is not only good at producing consistent grind sizes. But it’s a reliable workhorse as well.
Moving on to our next topic, we’ll see more of the importance of the reliability of high-end grinders.
The Unstoppable Grinder of Coffee Roasters
Coffee roasters bridge the gap between farmers and the people enjoying coffee at home or cafes somewhere around the world.
It can be both small and big business. But one thing’s for sure.
Coffee roasters who provide not only whole bean coffee but also ground coffee, have busy grinders working all day. And they produce a variety of grind sizes with high consistency.
By the way, we’ll not talk about much of the coffee roasting process. Instead, we’ll focus on the importance of high-end grinders in the coffee roaster setup.
Depending on the demand, roasters may grind hundreds of pounds of coffee a day. With this kind of workload, you’ll need a high-end grinder that is fast and can withstand continuous grinding.
Most likely, roasters use the best coffee grinders capable of large-scale milling. And these grinders are known as industrial grinders.
Aside from being durable, speed is a top consideration for any industrial grinders used in roasteries.
Got any idea how fast these grinders are?
These unstoppable machines can grind 300 pounds or more of beans. But this rate also depends on what type of roast they grind.
Light roasts are harder to grind than dark roast ones. So, there might be some variance in the pounds per hour rate of a machine.
The grind size also affects the speed of the grinding machine as fine grounds would require more time to process. On the other hand, coarse grounds need lesser grinding time.
Now that you have all the reasons why you would need a high-end grinder, aren’t you eager to learn about the best coffee grinders in the high-end category?
Your long wait is over with these 9 best high-end coffee grinders.
9 Best High End Coffee Grinders
Before we get down to the list, we decided to subdivide this topic into subcategories. This way, you’ll know what category each grinder fits best.
And also, you’ll find what grinder you’re looking for with ease. Though we would like to remind you that high-end coffee grinders come with skyrocket prices.
But with their features, you get more amount of value than the price you pay.
Best for the Serious Home User
Most home users are satisfied going for a low-end conical burr coffee grinder. Because such a machine is cheap and easy to use.
But if you’re a serious coffee enthusiast brewing at home, you’ll want the best burr grinder for your daily cup of Joe. A serious home user would think more of quality regardless of price.
Let’s get to know the best coffee mills for the serious home user.
- 30 grind settings
- 40 mm conical steel burrs
- Precise digital timer with a 0.1-second increment adjustment setting
- Minimal or no grounds retention
- Innovative straight-thru design
- Hopper contains 10 oz ( 283 g) of beans
- Portafilter holder
- Interchangeable AP and BG burrs
- Dimensions: 5.1 x 9.4 x 15 inches (12.95 x 23.87 x 38.1 cm)
- Weight: 10 lbs (160 oz)
A notable feature of the Baratza Sette 30 AP is its straight-thru design. What makes it special?
Maybe you’re familiar with the common design of burr grinders. Do you notice how the grounds go down the chute?
These mills have a feeding system that moves the grounds to the funnel before going down to the catcher or bin. The problem with this system is the retention of the ground.
It may seem irrelevant, but the grounds remaining go to waste. And not just that. These remnants get stale and will later mix with your freshly ground coffee. The result, a rancid-tasting cup of Joe.
You can eliminate this problem with regular cleaning though. But wouldn’t it be an inconvenience?
It’s a good thing this won’t be a problem with the Baratza Sette 30 AP. Let’s have a look at the burr. The Sette 30 grinds with a 40 mm steel AP stock burrs.
These burrs are what you would want for fine grounds used in espresso. So, is it not good for coarse grounds?
Unfortunately, it’s not. But the good news is you can replace the stock burrs with BG (brew grinder) burrs for less than $30 only.
In a hurry? With regards to speed, the Sette 30 AP grinds at a rate of 3.5 to 5.5 grams per second.
- Consistent grind
- Quick removal of top burr
- Easy to clean
- Can grind directly to a portafilter
- Quick grinding
- Loud grinding
- Portafilter holder lacks a latching mechanism
So why buy the Sette 30?
If you’re looking for a high-end grinder at a lower price point, this conical burr grinder is your perfect choice. It has excellent grind quality, accurate dosing, and minimal retention of grounds.
The Sette 30 AP is perfect for espresso lovers. But if you love the French press, you can purchase the BG burrs at an affordable price.
- 50 mm commercial-grade flat steel burrs
- No ground coffee catcher or bin (doserless)
- Grinds directly into a portafilter
- A 166-watt direct-drive motor
- Anti-UV ray bean hopper
- Sturdy metal frame
- 50 grind settings
- Hopper capacity of .65 lb ( 10 oz)
- Dimension: 14 x 10 x 5 inches (35.56 x 25.4 x 12.7 cm)
- Weight: 18 lbs (288 oz)
The Rancilio Rocky Doserless looks like an industrial grinder. But it’s suitable for home users who love the espresso.
Although it’s designed to grind for espresso, it can also produce coarse grounds with high consistency. This makes the Rocky a versatile burr coffee grinder.
Are you always in a hurry during the morning rush?
The Rocky Doserless is ready to grind with speed. The 50 mm commercial-grade flat steel burrs grind fine and coarse coffee grounds in seconds.
This workhorse is easy to use and has a simple design. Just fill in the hopper with coffee beans, set the desired grind setting, put the portafilter or grind catcher in place, and click the grind button.
Presto! You get a consistently ground coffee for your desired type of brew.
- Grinds with consistency
- Easy to clean
- Grinds quickly
- Heavy-duty construction
- Huge bean hopper
- Variable adjustment settings
- Quiet and powerful motor
- Versatile (good for both fine and coarse grind sizes)
- Small footprint
- Retains coffee grounds within the burrs
The Rancilio Rocky is versatile enough to give you both fine and coarse grinds. It got big burrs that grind with speed and consistency.
The small footprint makes it perfect to fit in small countertops. If you’re looking for a heavy-duty machine for your daily dose of espresso or other types of a brewed cup of Joe, then the doserless Rocky is a real deal.
- 54 mm ceramic flat burrs by Mahlkonig
- 230 grind settings
- Digital display panel
- 3 programmable settings
- Hopper has a bean locking mechanism
- Can grind directly to a portafilter or bin
- 160-watt motor
- Thermal reset function
- .625 lb (10 oz) bean hopper capacity
- Dimensions: 5 x 14.5 x 7 inches (12.7 x 36.83 x 17.78 cm)
- Weight: 12.77 lbs (204 oz)
High-end grinders are not just about being heavy-duty and versatile. But they are also capable of utilizing modern technology using electronics and chips.
Will intuitive digital display and programmable settings make your grinding experience easier? For some home users, this could be a bit complicated.
But getting used to it with a few days of use will definitely change the way you grind coffee forever. For the Baratza Vario-W, using a timer is a thing of the past.
Instead, Vario-W utilizes a fully integrated weight-based grinding for high accuracy dosing.
If you’re fond of different types of brewing methods, then the 230 grind settings give the perfect grind size you need.
- High-performance ceramic flat burrs
- Ceramic flat burrs stay sharp longer than steel
- Grinds with high consistency
- Integrated digital weighing scale
- Easy to operate
- Accurate dosing by weight
- 3 different program presets for convenience
- 230 grind settings let you fine-tune grounds texture
- Easy to recalibrate burrs
- Quick and easy removable of burrs for cleaning and maintenance
- Minimal static
- Fast grinding at 1.6 grams/second (espresso) and 2.2 grams/second (French press)
- The buttons are a lot better if they have backlights or illumination
The Baratza Vario-W is an excellent machine for home use. In fact, it is also perfect for light commercial use.
This coffee mill is a perfect partner for your espresso machine. But if you want other methods of coffee brews, the Vario-W does the job of producing consistent grounds.
The 3 programmable presets feature is also useful if you make different brew methods.
Just set your program for your top 3 favorite brewing methods and the next time you prepare coffee, you’re ready to go with just a push of a button.
The Vario-W is an expensive machine for home use. But if functionality, versatility, durability, and reliability is what you want, the Baratza Vario-W will never let you down.
Best to Jumpstart New Small Business
Are you thinking of making some cash from your passion for coffee? That’s one good idea.
One of the best businesses is something that comes out of your passion. Because as the old saying says, if you do what you love, you’ll never work a day in your life.
So, are you up for it?
Here are the best coffee mills to jumpstart your new small business.
- German technology 54 mm ceramic flat burrs by Malhkonig
- 260 grind settings
- Intuitive digital screen
- Digital time-based dosing
- Digital weight-based dosing
- Manual mode option
- Belt-driven drive system
- Removable portafilter holder
- Grounds bin
- Half pound capacity hopper
- Dimensions: 5.1 x 14.2 x 7.1 inches (12.95 x 36.06 x 18.03 cm)
- Weight: 13 lbs (208 oz)
Baratza is a legend when it comes to quality coffee grinders. If the Vario-W is one of the best home user coffee grinders, then the Baratza Forte AP is its commercial-grade version.
Baratza Forte AP is versatile for having 260 grind settings. Dial any brewing styles and experiment on every possible setting.
What about its burrs?
The 54 mm ceramic flat burrs by Malhkonig ensure precision grind and long-lasting sharpness. The 5 lbs per day grinding capacity makes it a perfect machine for busy cafes.
If your cafe has best-selling special brews, you can easily program up to three grind settings. This feature not only provides you consistent grinding but convenience as well, especially when people start to line up during peak hours of business.
And speaking of precision, the Baratza Forte AP is capable of grinding by time and weight. This feature allows for accurate dosing by either weight or time.
- Variable grind settings
- More accurate dosing using a digital timer and weighing scale
- Easy burr calibration
- Easy weighing scale calibration
- Small footprint perfect for cafes with limited space
- Grinds directly into a portafilter or grounds bin
- Easy burr removal for cleaning
- Quiet drive system
- Programmable up to 3 presets
- Portafilter holder has a tendency to slide while grinding
- Has a few low-grade plastic components
The Baratza Forte AP is an all-around heavy-duty grinder. It can grind with speed and accuracy with the option to use digital timed-dosing and weight-dosing.
The ability to program up to three presets gives you the convenience of one-touch button grinding. This feature is useful with high-volume cafes.
The Baratza Forte AP is at a relatively inexpensive price point for business use. With all its features, this small but powerful mill will help jumpstart your business.
Don’t be limited in your choices! We have more commercial coffee grinders, take a look at our Commercial Coffee Grinder for more options.
- Stepless micrometrical grind settings
- 64 mm hardened flat steel burrs
- Electronic dosing for single and double shots
- Manual dosing option
- Bean hopper capacity of 2.7 lbs (43 oz)
- Digital display
- Portafilter holder
- Powerful 350-watt motor
- Heavy-duty aluminum body
- Low RPM motor for heat reduction
- Dimensions: 24 x 9.5 x 16.5 inches (60.96 x 24.13 x 41.91 cm)
- Weight: 31 lbs (496 oz)
A coffee enthusiast who’s serious about his business needs a committed coffee grinder. The massive Mazzer Super Jolly Electronic Espresso Grinder means business.
Worried about the volume of customers coming to your cafe?
The reliable 64 mm hardened steel burrs powered by a 350-watt motor grind with speed and accuracy. The large hopper keeps the machine grinding without frequent refilling of beans.
It has a stepless grind adjustment for more precise grinding. The electronic dosing system can be set for a single or double dose.
Not fond of setting up programs? That wouldn’t be a problem as this grinding machine has the option for a manual setting.
- Stepless adjustment for precise grind size
- Accurate dosing control between 5.5 g to 9 g of grounds
- Easy to read digital display counter
- Large hopper for continuous grinding
- Easy to use dosing presets
- Has a manual grinding option
- Durable construction
- Heavy-duty large burrs
- Large footprint
- Too heavy
With a massive hopper for fewer bean refills, the Mazzer Jolly Electronic can run continuously without interruptions. The large burrs allow for a quick espresso grind with the option of single and double dose adjustments.
If other commercial espresso grinders need to change burrs grinding coarse, the Mazzer Jolly Electronic does coarse grind perfectly without the hassle. Just select the desired coarse grind setting, and you’ll get consistent grounds for French or cold brew.
Overall, the Mazzer Jolly Electronic will handle any situation in a cafe setting. This workhorse may go over the $1000 price point but the value it carries is beyond its tag price.
- 65 mm flat burrs
- Built-in fan for cooling
- Illuminated display
- Single and double programmable shots
- Stepless grind adjustment setting
- 3.3 lbs bean hopper capacity
- Hands-free grinding
- Has an electronic shot counter
- Dimensions: 9.44 x 21.6 x 12.6 inches (24 x 55 x 32 cm)
- Weight: 28.7 lbs ( 459.2 oz)
Worried that your newly opened cafe will be mobbed by customers? You don’t have to with the Malhkonig K30 Vario Air.
The K30 Vario Air is built for a fast-paced cafe using a built-in fan to dissipate heat generated by non-stop grinding. The result is a cooler grind, thus, preserving the flavor and aroma of the coffee beans.
This is the most notable feature of the Vario Air. But it’s also equipped with a massive 65 mm steel flat burrs that quickly grind a single dose in just 2 seconds.
With its stepless grind adjustment settings, a barista can adjust for any grind size with accuracy.
Learn more about the amazing features of the Malhkonig K30 Air Vario below.
- Grind-on-demand coffee mill
- Cooler grinding operation
- Quick grinding at 5g/second
- Easy to operate
- Durable and heavy-duty
- Consistent grind
- Perfect for small to large coffee shops
- Large footprint
The Incredible High-End Manual Grinders
Surprised why we’re including high-end manual grinders for our review?
Well, don’t be. Because as a true coffee enthusiast, you’ll never last a day without your daily caffeine boost.
What if, you need to go traveling, can you bring with you a high-end electric grinder?
Not so ideal, is it?
In a situation like this, you need something portable. But it also needs to match your taste for coffee.
Just be prepared for the price, as the following high-end manual grinders don’t come cheap.
- Grinds consistently from coarse to fine
- Stepped grind adjustment
- 40 g capacity of hopper and glass bin
- Oakwood crank handle
- Dimensions: 2.4 x 6.3 inches (6 x 16 cm)
- Weight: 1.3 lbs (20.8 oz)
Aside from its aesthetic design, this German-made manual grinder is built for performance as well. Its body is made of stainless steel wrapped in thin wood veneer, and the grounds bin is made of glass.
The burrs are made of high-nitrogen steel for durability and are designed for grind consistency.
Most manual grinders are difficult to crank. But the Comandante C40 is equipped with bearings for smooth cranking.
- Variable range grind sizes (French to Turkish)
- Consistent grind
- Easy to crank
- Transparent lid and bin
- Glass bin needs extra care in handling, especially when traveling
- Highly expensive for a manual grinder
Portability, grind consistency, and durability are the best features that you’ll want with the Comandante C40 MK3.
If you have the budget and you travel frequently, this manual grinder could be your partner for occasional tours.
- 48 mm conical steel burrs
- 70 g (2.4 oz) hopper capacity
- Food-safe and medical-grade plastic components
- Easy to grip
- Diecast folding crank
- Soft grip crank knob
- Dimensions: 13.5 x 3 inches (34.29 x 7.62 cm)
- Weight 2.96 lbs (47.36 oz)
The Lido 3 coffee grinder is equipped with large 48mm conical burrs to grind quickly and with consistency. It has a semi-transparent hopper and grinds chamber design so you can see how the beans are ground.
The grounds bin is made of stainless steel that serves as a jar as well.
It has a stepless grind setting perfect for producing anywhere from a very fine to coarse grind.
- Consistent grind from fine to coarse
- Provides good grip for easy cranking
- Large capacity hopper
- Nice aesthetics
- Comes with neoprene carrying case
- Inconvenient grind adjustment
If you love the aesthetics of the Lido 3 plus its high-end performance, you’ll never get regrets on picking this manual grinder.
Best of all, it’s only a quarter of the price of the Comandante C40 MK3.
- Stainless steel construction
- 47 mm conical steel burrs
- Equipped with bearings
- 40 grams of hopper capacity
- 50 clicks grind adjustment
- Dimensions: 8.25 x 7.8 inches (20.95 x 19.8 cm)
- Weight: 2.3 lbs (36.8 oz)
Kinu M47 is a heavy-duty manual grinder. It is made mostly of stainless steel with a few hard ABS plastic parts.
Equipped with a 47 mm coated conical steel burrs, the Kinu M47 is guaranteed to grind with ease even the hard light roasted beans.
Cranking is smooth and convenient with its four-bearing mounts.
Let’s get on the Kinu M47’s key features.
- Heavy-duty construction
- Smooth grinding
- 50 grind adjustments
- Large capacity hopper and bin
- 5-year warranty
- A bit bulky for traveling
If you’re looking for a sturdy manual grinder with smooth cranking and with many adjustment options, then the Kinu M47 perfectly fits your needs.
If you don’t mind its bulkiness, then there’s no problem going for it.
Not all manual grinders are as expensive as these ones, take a look at our Best Manual Coffee Grinders for more options!
Manufacturers are aware of the needs of consumers. Thus, they made high-end coffee grinders to satisfy their every need regarding coffee. You won’t get any problems with a high-end grinder. But, except for the unfortunate factory defects.
For the buying guide, you need to watch out for the warranty offered by the company.
These high-end coffee grinders are incredibly expensive. You don’t want to waste money on defective items, do you?
So, what do you need to look for a warranty?
Determine the duration of the warranty. Most manufacturers offer a one year warranty or more.
The longer the duration, the better.
Who Provides the Warranty
Check if the provider of the warranty is the seller or the manufacturer. This helps when a problem arises, so you’ll know who to contact for any defects you encounter.
Conditions Covered by the Warranty
Check what conditions are covered by the warranty. Sellers and manufacturers often offer limited warranties.
This means that using the product not according to its intended use may void the warranty.
It’s always important to read the terms and conditions of the warranty upon purchase to avoid problems in the future.
There you have it, our pick for the best high-end coffee grinders. We hope you find what you’re looking for.
If you think we missed something, please don’t hesitate to hit the comments box.